Cabyle used to be one of the most important centers of south-eastern Thrace. It was established around 2000 BC on the Zaychi Vrah Heights.
In 341 BC Cabyle was conquered by the army of Philip II of Macedon and was later included in the Empire of Alexander of Macedon. It was colonized by Philip with rebellious Macedonians. In the 3rd century BC it was governed again by the Thracians. The town was a major trade and military center between the 3rd and the 2nd centuries BC. The town is noted by numerous ancient authors including Demosthenes, Polybius, Strabo, Pliny the Elder, and Stephanus of Byzantium.
In 71 BC the city was conquered by the Roman Republic by the troops of Marcus Lucullus and after 45 BC it was included in the Roman client state of the Sapaean Thracian kingdom, and after 46 AD in the province of Thracia. Cabyle was one of the most important cities of Thrace following the reforms of Emperor Diocletian in 4th century AD.
In late 4th century Cabyle was seized by the Goths. It was finally destroyed by the Avars and never settled again. During the Middle Ages there was a small settlement located in the territory of the ancient city.