The weight of the arrowhead must be considered in relation to the “weight” of the bow (the force necessary to draw the bow). The weight of the arrowhead must be in a 1:7 ratio to the total weight of the arrow (the sum of the arrowhead, shaft, feathers, and binding material). Scholars long contended that the weight of an arrowhead could not exceed 10 grams, however, recent research proved that points weighing up to 22g could have been used as arrowheads. Still, heavy points were more likely used on javelins. The Neo-Assyrians had javelin throwers in their army along with bowmen. Each Roman soldier had a javelin as part of his accoutrements. During the Mongol invasion, each horseman would have several quivers, each containing thirty or more of a specialized type of arrow.
Bronze an alloy of copper and tin, is considerably harder than copper alone. Bronze was commonly used for arrowheads from 2200 B.C. through to the Persian empire, Hellenistic era, Roman era, and into the Byzantine period. The earliest bronze arrowheads were hammered but the properties of bronze made it excellent for casting and filing, which was could be done, and likely often was done, by the soldiers themselves. Casting made complex features, such as triblade heads and hollow sockets possible. Casting also enabled mass production, which was necessary since each archer might require hundreds of arrows. The many varieties of arrowhead shapes varied greatly over time, from area to area, and depending on the purpose of the arrow. Petrie classifieds the arrowheads in the following thirteen shape categories